Funded by the Arts and Humanities Research Council, this project involved: over 100 interviews with industrial, political, security, legal and NGO stakeholders; a UK survey (n=2068); and a workshop at Digital Catapult (UK) with relevant stakeholders to explore scope for ethical guidelines. Overall the research finds that there is overlap between stakeholders on how best to manage the emergence of these technologies, but this is not currently being achieved. It concludes by identifying beneficial uses of these technologies, but also an ethical and regulatory lacuna. Mindful of dangers of regulating early, the report nonetheless recommends regulatory attention. It also urges relevant sectors of the technology industry to recognise that there is self-interest in collective consideration and action regarding negative societal implications of tracking emotional life. See here for academic papers, articles and here for overall project report.
Fake news and emotions
Professor Andrew McStay and Professor Vian Bakir of Bangor University assessed the connection between fake news and emotions. We argue that what is most significant about the contemporary fake news furore is what it portends: the use of personally and emotionally targeted news produced by algo-journalism, empathic media and emotional AI. In assessing solutions to this democratically problematic situation, we recommend that greater attention is paid to the role of digital advertising in causing, and combating, both the contemporary fake news phenomenon, and the near-horizon variant of empathically optimised automated fake news. Written evidence for UK parliamentary inquiry here and our analysis of all parliamentary submissions here. Our academic paper 'Fake News and The Economy of Emotions: Problems, Causes, Solutions' here.
Art and creativity
There is enormous scope for emotional AI to be used for social good. A key domain is art where emotional AI provides scope for new modes of expression and audience engagement.. Andrew McStay has advised and continues to work with digital artist Ronan Devlin, whose work Aura is currently touring the UK. See images below from exhibitions Lancaster, Leeds and London. Each uses facial coding techniques and maps incoming data in real-time to a colour-wheel. These colours are then expressed through a variety of treatments that visitors can interact with. The Canary Wharf version also has an ‘Easter egg’ built in (if a person is static and expressionless, their faces rises like an apparition to be displayed on a gigantic water fountain). Very cool.
Cross-Cultural Considerations between UK and Japan
Investigators: Prof. Vian Bakir, Dr. Lachlan Urquhart, Prof. Peter Mantello and Prof. Andrew McStay.
Title: Emotional AI: Comparative Considerations for UK and Japan across Commercial, Political and Security Sectors
Funded by the ESRC, a UK Research Council, in 2019 we seek to generate conversation among UK and Japanese academics, industry, artists, NGOs and regulators. The goal is to understand the constitution, and commercial, civic and security implications, of a world where emotional AI increasingly plays a central role. While the academic part of the project will use insights to inform a subsequent grant application, the overall objective broader. It to identify the benefits and harms of these technologies and, central to this project, what are the cross-cultural considerations? Are ethical and privacy considerations the same in the UK and Japan, or do they emerge out of a situated social context? If so, what are the similarities and differences?